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PHL 320 Final Exam Guide (New, 2020) Latest

  • PHL 320 Final Exam Guide (New, 2020) Latest
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PHL 320 Final Exam Guide (New, 2020) Latest

1. An automobile company decides to do its bit for the environment by introducing new models of electric cars. The company’s long-term goal is to eventually stop manufacturing gasoline cars and focus on manufacturing electric cars. The managers of the company reached this decision after critically evaluating the effects of car fluids and car emissions on the environment. They promise to do everything within their power to reduce the company’s carbon footprint. Which of the following approaches does this scenario illustrate?
The defensive approach
The obstructionist approach
The egoistic approach
The accommodative approach
2. Which of the following takes place in the final stage of the decision-making process?
Ranking the various alternatives in order of practicality
Examining why any expectations for a decision were not met
Giving middle managers sufficient resources to achieve a goal
Making minor decisions related to the chosen alternative
3. Which of the following is the first step in the decision-making process?
Generating alternatives for a decision
Realizing the need for a decision
Assessing alternatives
 Seeking feedback
4. Which of the following terms refers to an approximate assessment of the credibility of a claim?
Hypothetical imperative
Initial plausibility
Background information
Categorical imperative
 5. Which of the following is a practice that would help foster creativity in an organization?
Withholding feedback, regardless of whether it is constructive or unconstructive 
Rewarding employees who come up with innovative ideas
Holding on to unproductive ideas instead of eliminating them
Avoiding the use of contests to encourage employees for fear of promoting unhealthy competition
6. A cosmetics company has manufactured a new range of skin care products. The top management wants to create a common tagline for the entire range of products and therefore decides to get the managers of the company involved in the decision-making process. It conducts a number of sessions in which the managers are asked to work together and think of innovative taglines for the products and share their ideas with the rest of the group. Group members are specifically asked to be open to all ideas, however offbeat they may be. The members of the group are then asked to pick a tagline after debating the pros and cons of the most popular ideas. This scenario illustrates __________.
The nominal group technique
The Delphi technique
7. The top management of a cereal manufacturing company wants to change the packaging of their products and appeal to attract a younger age group. Since the company is located in three cities, the top management wants the managers from each city to weigh in and give their suggestions for improvement. A group leader is first picked, and the problem to be solved is written down. After this, a questionnaire is e-mailed to all the participating managers. The managers are asked to list down solutions to the problem and e-mail the questionnaire back to the group leader. This scenario illustrates the first few steps of __________.
the nominal group technique
the Delphi technique
production blocking
8. __________ are often considered to be the most critical stakeholder group.
9. Which of the following rules of ethical decision making focuses on providing the greatest good for the greatest number of people?
The justice rule
The golden rule
The utilitarian rule
The moral rights rule
10. __________ is a written approach to creative problem solving and decision making.
The nominal group technique
The Delphi technique
11. In which of the following approaches to social responsibility do managers often put their own interests first and cause other stakeholders to be harmed yet manage to stay within the law and abide by legal requirements?
The accommodative approach
The obstructionist approach
The proactive approach
The defensive approach
12. When would an argument be considered valid?
When it is impossible for the premise to be true and the conclusion to be false 
When the premise of the argument is unquestionably true
When the argument is sound
When it is impossible for the conclusion to appear after the premise
13. Which of the following is the final step in the decision-making process?
Learning from feedback
Generating alternatives
Recognizing the need for a decision
Implementing the selected alternative
14. Which of the following is true of a good inductive argument?
The lesser the support the premise provides for the conclusion, the stronger is the argument. 
The premise of a good inductive argument demonstrates its conclusion.
The greater the support the premise provides for the conclusion, the weaker is the argument. 
The premise of a good inductive argument supports its conclusion.
15. Which of the following is a question to be asked when one is presented with a claim?
When does the claim become a true statement?
When does the content of the claim pose a credibility problem?
Does the claim speak about one particular subject?
What is likely to happen if the claim is examined in detail?
16. Which of the following practices should be avoided by managers who aim to foster creativity in their organizations?
Giving employees the opportunity to experiment with radical ideas
Allowing employees to make mistakes and learn from them
Attempting to speed up a creative solution to a problem
Encouraging creative employees to take risks
 17. Which of the following statements is an example of a subjective claim?
There is life after death.
Mozart is the greatest musical composer to have lived.
The earth is round.
Aliens exist in other galaxies in the universe.
18. The management of a small-scale cosmetics company wants to increase awareness of their brand and its products in the market. They decide to choose between two alternatives: either launch a new advertising campaign on social media or offer promotional discounts in select stores. They conduct research on which of these two alternatives would be the most viable for the company. They compare the potential costs and potential benefits of each alternative. In this scenario, which of the following criteria is being evaluated by the management of the company?
Innovative capacity
Economic feasibility
19. Identify the unstated premise in the following argument: John is indifferent and has a laid-back approach to work. John should be fired.
Employees who strictly follow their company’s work policy will never be fired.
John should be fired because he is violating company policy.
John is not only indifferent but also has a laid-back approach to work.
Anyone who is indifferent and has a laid-back approach to work must be fired.
 20. The two factors that are used to assess the credibility of claims are claims themselves and their__________.
 21. Which of the following serves as the most reliable source of information about the world in general?
The background information one possesses
One’s own observations
Things that one learns from others
One’s personal interests
22. __________ refers to a decision maker’s ability to discover unique and original ideas that lead to viable courses of action.
Problem formulation
Problem identification
23. Which of the following occurs as a result of group members’ being unable to simultaneously understand all the alternatives that are generated in a brainstorming session?
Production blocking
Feedback control
 24. The term __________ refers to the inner guiding moral values, beliefs, and principles used by a person to examine a situation and govern his or her behavior.
25. Which of the following statements is an example of an objective claim?
The sun sets in the west.
A dog is man’s best friend.
Shakespeare was a better poet than Milton.
Summers in California are very warm.
 26. When a firm exhibits the highest degree of social responsibility, it has most likely adopted __________.
The proactive approach
The accommodative approach
The defensive approach
The obstructionist approach
 27. Creativity is most likely to result when:
Managers constantly monitor talented employees.
Employees are given the freedom and opportunity to take risks.
Employees are prevented from making mistakes.
Managers try to speed up the process of working on a creative solution.
 28. Identify the unstated conclusion in the following argument: The most hardworking employee in the company will receive the Employee of the Year award. Doug has been working exceptionally hard all year round.
Doug has not yet received an award from the company.
Doug is the most hardworking employee in the company.
Doug will win the Employee of the Year award.
Hardworking employees win the Employee of the Year award.
 29. Identify the conclusion in the following argument: Mark always leaves his phone at home when he goes to the gym. He has not been answering any calls in the past hour, so he is at the gym.
Mark leaves his phone at home when he goes to the gym.
Mark has not been answering calls.
Mark does not answer calls when he is at the gym.
Mark is at the gym.
30. A(n) __________ presents a consideration for the acceptance of a claim.

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